Carborundum (silicon carbide) is a dense material of varying degrees of transparency, obtained by combining sand with coal by melting. Instances of black color in appearance resemble anthracite, but there are other shades. In bright light, the mineral shimmers with iridescent colors, forming various patterns on the surface.
Due to numerous useful properties, carborundum is used not only in the jewelry industry, but also in electronics, steelmaking, etc. In addition, the mineral has a magical and healing effect.
History and origin
They learned how to get carborundum synthetically since the middle of the 19th century, but they patented it only in 1893. Until 2016, the United States was the manufacturer of artificial stone, but today China is recognized as its main supplier to the world market. Currently, about 250 modifications of carborundum of different colors and shades are produced. Stones that are used in the jewelry industry are covered with a special film that allows the crystal to look like a real diamond.
In nature, this crystal is distributed in very small quantities, so it is almost impossible to find large deposits.
Important! The process of obtaining a factory stone takes place on the latest technological equipment, where specialists carefully control its growth stage. This allows you to get an almost perfect mineral (without possible flaws).
Place of Birth
Natural crystal is extremely rare in nature, so its large deposits have not been found. Only in a single form can one find Carborundum (small pebbles of a dirty brown color). Therefore, artificial production of its analogues has been established.
Physical and chemical properties of the stone
Chemical formula: SiC
Condition: crystals, druses or crystalline powders from clear white, yellow, green or dark blue to black, depending on purity, fineness, allotropic and polytypic modifications.
Melting point: 2830°C
- Density 3,05 g/cm³
- Composition 93% silicon carbide
- Bending strength 320…350 MPa
- Compressive strength 2300 MPa
- Modulus of elasticity 380 GPa
- Hardness 87…92 HRC
- Crack resistance within 3.5 - 4.5 MPa m1/2,
- Thermal conductivity coefficient at 100 °C, 140—200 W/(m K)
- Thermal expansion coefficient at 20-1000 °C, 3,5…4,0 K−1⋅10−6
- Fracture toughness 3,5 MPa m1/2
Self Bonded Silicon Carbide:
- Density 3,1 g/cm³
- Composition 99% silicon carbide
- Bending strength 350-450 MPa
- Compressive strength 2500 MPa
- Elastic modulus 390–420 GPa
- Hardness 90…95 HRC
- Crack resistance within 4 - 5 MPa m1/2,
- Thermal conductivity coefficient at 100 °C, 80 - 130 W/(m K)
- Thermal expansion coefficient at 20-1000 °C, 2,8…4 K−1⋅10−6
- Fracture toughness 5 MPa m1/2
- Density 14,8 g/cm³
- Composition Tungsten carbide
- Bending strength 1700…1900 MPa
- Compressive strength 3500 MPa
- Modulus of elasticity 550 GPa
- Hardness 90 HRA
- Crack resistance within 8-25 MPa m1/2,
- Thermal conductivity coefficient at 100 °C, 75…85 W/(m K)
- Thermal expansion coefficient at 20-1000 °C, 4,5 K−1⋅10−6
- Fracture toughness 10…15 MPa m1/2
Siliconized graphite SG-T:
- Density 2,6 g/cm³
- Composition 50% silicon carbide
- Bending strength 90…110 MPa
- Ultimate compressive strength 300…320 MPa
- Modulus of elasticity 95 GPa
- Hardness 50…70 HRC
- Crack resistance within 2-3 MPa m1/2,
- Thermal conductivity coefficient at 10 °C, 100…115 W/(m K)
- Thermal expansion coefficient at 20-1000 °C, 4,6 K−1⋅10−6
- Fracture toughness 3…4 MPa m1/2
Varieties and colors
In laboratory conditions, 2 types of stone are obtained: green and black. At the same time, the first option contains fewer impurities, but is less durable, unlike black. The pure mineral is completely transparent and has no color, but it is extremely rare.
Silicon carborundum is used in many areas of industry because it is highly resistant to fracture and extreme temperatures. Here are its main areas of application:
- As a structural material, stone is used to make brakes for racing cars, panels and plates, elements for military equipment, abrasive nozzles, etc.
- In electronics, semiconductor devices (thyristors), ultrafast diodes, etc. are made on the basis of silicon carbide.
- In steelmaking, it is used as a fuel for steel production, as well as in temperature correction in the production of metal products.
- In nuclear power engineering, a coating is made from a mineral for nuclear fuel elements, added to the composition of grinding pastes, etc.
- In jewelry, it is used as moissanite (because it looks like a diamond), it is decorated with rings, necklaces, necklaces, bracelets, earrings, brooches, etc.
Interesting fact! Moissanite is often used to imitate a diamond, selling the product to the buyer at the cost of an expensive gemstone (because it is difficult to distinguish one from the other with the naked eye).
In addition to practical applications in various industries, the mineral has healing properties. Here are some of them:
- Relieves phobias and prolonged depression.
- Calms the nerves, improves sleep.
- Normalizes metabolism.
- Improves the condition of the gastrointestinal tract in case of gastritis or ulcers.
- Restores liver function, eliminating hepatitis and cirrhosis of the initial stage.
- With constant wear eliminates headaches and joint pain.
- Normalizes hormonal levels.
- Improves blood formation, and is especially useful for anemia.
- Strengthens immunity.
Carborundum has the following magical properties:
- Improves material well-being and attracts money to its owner.
- Helps to overcome fear on the way to the goal, sweeping away all obstacles on the way.
- Helps its owner to gain sexual attraction for the opposite sex.
- Improves memory and intellectual abilities.
- Protects from external negativity (damage, evil eye, curse).
Be careful! It is not recommended to constantly carry carborundum with you, because this is fraught with nervous excitement or insomnia.
Carborundum has a relatively low cost, so everyone can afford it. Here are his approximate rates:
- Raw nuggets (crystals) - can be purchased within 20 euros.
- As jewelry (pendants, rings, necklaces, bracelets, etc.) - 90-200 euros.
The artificial mineral material is sufficiently resistant to external damage, high temperatures and acids, so it is easy and simple to care for it. In order for moissanite to serve “faithfully and truthfully” for a long time, it is enough to observe 2 conditions:
- Store the stone in a box (it is possible in the "company" of other jewelry).
- As necessary, clean with any detergents, with the exception of abrasives (because the microfilm applied to the surface of the stone may be damaged).
How to wear
You can wear the mineral in hot, cold, dry and humid weather (including wearing it to the beach). Carborundum or moissanite goes well with casual clothes, as well as with strict classic suits and evening dresses.
Products with moissanite are worn both for a regular walk and for recreational activities, including going to the theater or restaurant.
How to distinguish from fakes
Distinguishing a stone from a fake is quite simple: carborundum or moissanite cannot just be broken or damaged by any mechanical means, unlike glass and other imitating materials. Only natural diamond can scratch it.
Compatibility with zodiac signs
("+++" - the stone fits perfectly, "+" - can be worn, "-" - absolutely contraindicated):
|Aries||+ + +|
|Gemini||+ + +|
|Lev||+ + +|
|Libra||+ + +|
|Sagittarius||+ + +|
|Aquarius||+ + +|
The mineral is suitable for all signs of the zodiac without exception. But it will bring the greatest benefit to people of the elements of Fire (Lions, Sagittarius, Aries) and Air (Aquarius, Gemini, Libra).
Interesting about the stone
Some interesting facts about the stone are common:
- Near the volcano Vesuvius (located in Italy), frozen lava is sold to tourists as carborundum.
- Moissanite is often referred to as a "space" stone, because it is present in space in greater quantities than on Earth.
- Scientists suggest that natural silicon carbide first appeared outside the solar system. They came to such conclusions after studying the Murchison meteorite.
- The mineral was first discovered by the French scientist Henri Moissan. Hence its descriptive name.
Carborundum is an interesting stone with many useful properties, which is in no way inferior to a diamond in beauty and cut. Therefore, it is actively used in the jewelry industry. Jewelry with moissanite can be safely worn at entertainment events and business meetings, as well as used in magical and healing practices.